There are two aspects of sediments that are important acoustically - the sediment thickness and the sediment type. We will be looking at the distribution of these two quantities in the world ocean.
Below is a map of sediment thickness, the same one as in Figure 5.9 in your book (courtesy of NOAA).
Sediments can be classified in several ways - either by size or source, as you read in your textbook, or by acoustical properties. The Naval Oceanographic Office has an extensive database of sediment types, and they use 4 different classifications -
Let's have a look at two of these - the standard and the HFEVA for comparison.
The NAVO standard classification is shown below for the world ocean (sorry it doesn't include the Antarctic ocean!). The calcareous (marine derived) sediments are shown in cool colors; terrigenous sediments in warm colors. Click on any of the project regions to get a close-up view.
Below is the HFEVA data from NAVO. Click on any of the project regions to get a close-up view.
For more information, see the full description of the NAVO sediment type database is available here (word doc).