The bibliography is divided in 4 sections :


K. Akitomo, 1999a.
Open-ocean deep convection due to thermobaricity. 1.Scaling argument. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(C3):5225-5234.

K. Akitomo, 1999b.
Open-ocean deep convection due to thermobaricity. 2.Numerical experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(C3):5235-5249.

D. W. Denbo and E. D. Skyllingstad, 1996.
An ocean large-eddy simulation model with application to deep convection. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C1):1095-1110.

R. W. Garwood, 1991.
Enhancements to deep turbulent entrainment. In Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans, J.-C. Gascard and P. C. Chu, editors, volume 57 of Elsevier Oceanography Series, pages 197-213. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

R. W. Garwood, S. M. Isakari, and P. C. Gallacher, 1994.
Thermobaric convection. In The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment, O. Johannessen, R. Muench, and J. Overland, editors, volume 85 of Geophysical Monograph Series, pages 199-209. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.

T. B. Løyning and J. E. Weber, 1997.
Thermobaric effect on buoyancy-driven convection in cold seawater. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(272):875-885.

T. J. McDougall, 1987.
Thermobaricity, cabbelling, and water-mass conversion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92(C5):5448-5464.

M. G. McPhee, 2000.
Marginal thermobaric stability in the ice-covered upper ocean over Maud Rise. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30(11):2710-2722.

L. Padman, R. Muench, and E. Fahrbach, 2000.
Cabbeling catastrophes. Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.


K. Akitomo, T. Awaji, and N. Imasato, 1995.
Open-ocean deep convection in the Weddell Sea: Two-dimensional numerical experiments with a nonhydrostatic model. Deep Sea Research, 42:53-73.

N. V. Bagriantsev, A. L. Gordon, and B. A. Huber, 1989.
Weddell gyre: temperature maximum stratum. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94(C6):8331-8334.

J. C. Comiso and A. L. Gordon, 1987.
Recurring polynyas over the Cosmonaut Sea and the Maud Rise. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92(C3):2819-2833.

J. C. Comiso and A. L. Gordon, 1996.
Cosmonaut polynya in the Southern Ocean: Structure and variability. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C8):18297-18313.

M. R. Drinkwater, 1997.
Satellite microwave radar observations of climate-related sea-ice anomalies. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, Proc. Workshop on Polar Processes in Global Climate, 13-15 Nov., 1996:115-118.

E. Fahrbach, R. G. Peterson, G. Rohardt, P. Schlosser, and R. Bayer, 1994.
Suppression of bottom water formation in the southeastern Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research I, 41(2):389-411.

A. E. Gill, 1973.
Circulation and bottom water formation in the Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research I, 20:111-140.

A. L. Gordon, 1978.
Deep antarctic convection west of Maud Rise. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 8(4):600-612.

A. L. Gordon, 1982.
Weddell deep water variability. Journal of Marine Research, 40(Suppl.):199-217.

A. L. Gordon, 1991.
Two stable modes of Southern Ocean winter stratification. In Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans, J.-C. Gascard and P. C. Chu, editors, volume 57 of Elsevier Oceanography Series, pages 17-35. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

D. G. Martinson, 1990.
Evolution of the Southern Ocean winter mixed layer and sea ice: Open ocean deepwater formation and ventilation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(C7):11641-11654.

D. G. Martinson and R. A. Iannuzzi, 1998.
Antarctic ocean-ice interaction: Implications from ocean bulk property distributions in the Weddell Gyre. In Antartic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability, M. Jeffries, editor, volume 74 of Antartic Research Series, pages 243-271. American Geophysical Union, Washington.

D. G. Martinson, P. D. Killworth, and A. L. Gordon, 1981.
A convective model for the Weddell polynya. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11(4):466-488.

M. G. McPhee, 1990.
Small Scale Processes. In Polar Oceanography, part A: Physical Science, Academic Press, pp. 287-334.

M. G. McPhee, S. F. Ackley, P. Guest, B. A. Huber, D. G. Martinson, J. H. Morison, R. D. Muench, L. Padman, and T. P. Stanton, 1996.
The Antartic Zone Flux Experiment. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 77:1221-1232.

M. G. McPhee, C. Kottmeier, and J. Morison, 1999.
Ocean heat flux in the central Weddell Sea during Winter. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29:1166-1179.

R. D. Muench, J. H. Morison, L. Padman, D. Martinson, P. Schlosser, B. Huber and R. Hohmann, 2000.
Maud Rise revisited. Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.
A. H. Orsi, W. D. Nowlin, and T. Whitworth, 1993.
On the circulation and stratification of the Weddell gyre. Deep Sea Research I, 40(1):169-203.


O. Boebel, K. L. S. Tokos, and W. Zenk, 1995.
Calculation of salinity from neutrally buoyant RAFOS floats. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 12(8):923-934.

F. D. Carsey and R. W. Garwood, 1993.
Identification of modelled ocean plumes in Greenland Gyre ERS-1 SAR data. Geophysical Research Letter, 20(20):2207-2210.

R. A. Clarke, J. H. Swift, J. L. Reid, and K. P. Koltermann, 1990.
The formation of Greenland Sea Deep Water: double-diffusion or deep convection? Deep Sea Research II, 37(9):1385-1424.

B. Galperin and S. A. Orszag, editors, 1993.
Large Eddy Simulation of complex engineering and geophysical flows. Cambridge University Press.

J.-C. Gascard and R. A. Clarke, 1983.
The formation of Labrador Sea water. Part II: Mesoscale and smaller- scale processes. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 13(10):1780-1797.

S. Häkkinen, 1987.
Upwelling at the ice edge: a mechanism for deep water formation ? Journal of Geophysical Research, 92(C5):5031-5034.

R. R. Harcourt, March 1999.
Numerical simulation of deep convection and the response of drifters in the Labrador Sea. PhD thesis, University of California at Santa Cruz, California, USA.

R. R. Harcourt, L. Jiang, and R. W. Garwood, 1998.
Numerical simulation of drifter response to Labrador Sea convection. Technical report NPS-OC-98-001, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.

A. J. Hermann and W. B. Owens, 1993.
Energetics of gravitational adjustment for mesoscale chimneys. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23(2):346-371.

H. Jones and J. Marshall, 1993.
Convection with rotation in neutral ocean: a study of open-ocean deep convection. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23(6):1009-1039.

E. J. Kearns and H. T. Rossby, 1993.
A simple method for measuring deep convection. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 10(5):609-617.

D. E. Kelley, 1994.
Temperature-Salinity criterion for inhibition of deep convection. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24(11):2424-2433.

P. D. Killworth, 1979.
On ``chimney'' formations in the ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9(3):531-554.

S. Legg, J. Mc Williams, and J. Gao, 1998.
Localization of deep convection by a mesoscale eddy. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28(5):944-970.

P. Lherminier, June 1998.
Convection profonde en Mer du Groenland: Etude expérimentale des phases de préconditionnement et de mélange. PhD thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

P. Lherminier, R. R. Harcourt, R. W. Garwood, and J.-C. Gascard, 2000.
Interpretation of mean vertical velocities measured by isobaric floats during deep convection. Journal of Marine Systems, in press.

J. Marshall and F. Schott, 1999.
Open-ocean convection: observations, theory and models. Review of Geophysics, 37(1):1-64.

T. Maxworthy and S. Narimousa, 1994.
Unsteady, turbulent convection into a homogeneous, rotating fluid, with oceanographic applications. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24(5):865-887.

T. J. McDougall, 1983.
Greenland Sea Bottom Water formation: a balance between advection and double-diffusion. Deep Sea Research, 30(11A):1109-1117.

M. G. McPhee, 1994.
On the turbulent mixing length in the oceanic boundary layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24:2014-2031.

M. G. McPhee, 1999.
Parametrization of mixing in the oceanic boundary layer. Journal of Marine Systems, 21:55-65.

W. M. Morawitz, P. J. Sutton, P. F. Worcester, B. D. Cornuelle, J. F. Lynch, and R. Pawlowicz, 1996.
Three-dimensional observations of a deep convective chimney in the Greenland Sea during Winter 88-89. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(11):2316-2343.

T. Paluszkiewicz, R. W. Garwood, and D. W. Denbo, 1994.
Deep convective plumes in the ocean. Oceanography, 7(2):37-44.

R. Pawlowicz, J. F. Lynch, W. B. Owens, P. F. Worcester, W. M. L. Morawitz, and P. J. Sutton, 1995.
Thermal evolution of the Greenland Sea Gyre in 1988-1989. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(C3):4727-4750.

T. Rossby, D. Dorson, and J. Fontaine, 1986.
The RAFOS system. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 3(12):672-679.

B. Rudels, 1990.
Haline convection in the Greenland Sea. Deep Sea Research I, 37(9):1491-1511.

F. Schott, M. Visbeck, and J. Fischer, 1993.
Observations of vertical currents and convection in the central Greenland Sea during the Winter of 1988-1989. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98(C8):14401-14421.

U. Send and J. Marshall, 1995.
Integral effects of deep convection. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25(5):855-872.

H. Stommel, A. D. Voorhis, and D. C. Webb, 1971.
Submarine clouds in the deep ocean. American Scientist, 59(6):716-722.

R. E. Stone, June 1999.
Entrainment, detrainment and large-scale horizontal gradients in oceanic deep convection. PhD thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA.

M. Visbeck, J. Fischer, and F. Schott, 1995.
Preconditioning the Greenland Sea for deep convection: ice formation and ice drift. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(C9):18489-18502.

M. Visbeck, J. Marshall, and H. Jones, 1996.
Dynamics of isolated convective regions in the ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(9):1721-1734.

P. Wadhams, J.-C. Gascard, and L. Miller, editors, 1999.
The European Subpolar Ocean Programme: ESOP-1, volume 46 (6-7) of Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Elsevier Science.

P. F. Worcester, J. F. Lynch, W. M. L. Morawitz, R. Pawlowicz, P. J. Sutton, B. D. Cornuelle, O. M. Johannessen, W. H. Munk, W. B. Owens, R. Shuchman, and R. C. Spindel, 1993.
Evolution of the large-scale temperature field in the Greenland Sea during 1988-89 from tomographic measurements. Geophysical Research Letter, 20(20):2211-2214.

Y. Yoshikawa, K. Akitomo, and T. Awaji, 2000.
Formation process of intermediate water in baroclinic current under cooling. Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.


J. W. Deardorff, 1980.
Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model. Bound. Layer Meteor., 18:495-527.

R. R. Harcourt, E. L. Steffen, R. W. Garwood, and E. A. D'Asaro, 2001.
Fully Lagrangian floats in Labrador Sea deep convection: Comparison of numerical and experimental results. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press.

C.-H. Moeng, 1984.
A large-eddy simulation model for the study of planetary boundary-layer turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 41:2052-2062.

E. Skyllingstad and D. Denbo, 1995.
An ocean large-eddy simulation of Langmuir circulations and convection in the surface mixed layer. J. Geophys. Res., 100:8501-8522.

D. Wang, W. G. Large, and J. C. McWilliams, 1996.
Large-eddy simulation of the equatorial ocean boundary layer: Diurnal cycling, eddy viscosity, and horizontal rotation. J. Geophys. Res., 101:3649-3662.