Peter C. Chu

Distinguished Professor and Chair

Department of Oceanography
Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA  93943

 

 

PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL PAPERS

(in time reverse order)

(Sole Author on 24 Papers, First Author on 97 Papers)

 

(162) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, and N. Huang, 2014: Derivative-optimized  empirical mode decomposition for the Hilbert-Huang transformJournal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 259, 57-64.

(161) Chu, P.C., S. E. Miller, and J. A. Hansen, 2014: Fuel-saving ship route using the Navy’s ensemble meteorological and oceanic forecasts. Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation,  in press.

(160) Zodiatis, G., G. Galanis, A. Nikolaidis, C. Kalogeri, D. Hayes, G.C. Georgiou, P.C. Chu, G. Kallos, 2014: Wave Energy Potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin-An integrated 10-year study. Renewable Energy, 66, in press.

(159)  Yuan, D-L, Z-C Zhang, P. C. Chu, and W. K. Dewar, 2014: Geostrophic circulation in the tropical north Pacific Ocean based on Argo profiles. Journal of Physical Oceanography,  in press.

(158)  Song,  K.S., and P.C. Chu, 2014: Conceptual Design of Future Undersea Unmanned Vehicle  (UUV) System for Mine DisposalIEEE Systems Journal, 8 (1), 41-51.

(157) Chang, Y.-C., G.-Y. Chen, R.-S. Tseng,  L. R. Centurioni, and  P. C. Chu, 2013: Observed near-surface flows under all tropical cyclone intensity levels using drifters in the northwestern Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 1-11, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20187.

(156) Fu, H.-L.,  P. C. Chu, G.-J. Han, Z.-L. He, W. Li, X.-F. Zhang, 2013: Improvement of short-term forecasting in the northwest Pacific through assimilating Argo data into initial fields.  Acta Oceanologica Sinica,  22 (7), 1-9, DOI: 10.1007/s13131-013-0301-9.

(155) Zhang, Z.C., D.L. Yuan, and P.C. Chu, 2013: Geostrophic meridional transport in tropical Northwest Pacific based on Argo profiles. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 31 (3), 656-664.

(154) Chang, Y.-C., R.-S. Tseng,  G.-Y. Chen,  P. C. Chu, and Y.-T. Shen, 2013: Ship routing utilizing strong ocean currents. Journal of Navigation, 60,  doi:10.1017/ S0373463313000441.

(153)   Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, and N. Huang, 2012: Compact empirical mode decomposition— an algorithm to reduce mode mixing, end effect, and detrend uncertaintyAdvances in Adaptive Data Analysis, 4 (3) 1250017 (18 pages) doi: 10.1142/S1793536912500173.

(152) Chu, P.C., H.-C. Li, C.-W. Fan, and Y.-H. Chen, 2012: Speleothem evidence for temporal-spatial variation in east Asian summer monsoon since medieval warm period. Journal of Quaternary Science,  27 (9), 901-910.

(151) Chang, Y.-C., G.-Y. Chen, R.-S. Tseng, L. R. Centurioni, and P. C. Chu, 2012: Observed near-surface currents under high wind speeds. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, C11026, doi:10.1029/2012JC007996.

(150)  Wang, X., P.C. Chu, G. Han, W. Li, X. Zhang, and D. Li., 2012: A fully conserved minimal adjustment scheme with (T, S) coherency for stabilization of hydrographic profiles. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology,  29, 1854-1865.

(149) Xue, Y., R. Vasic, Z. Janjic, Y.M. Liu, and P. C. Chu, 2012: The impact of spring subsurface soil temperature anomaly in the Western U.S. on North American summer precipitation –a case study using regional climate model downscaling. Journal of Geophysical Research,  117, D11103, doi:10.1029/2012JD017692.

(148) Galanis, G., P.C. Chu, G. Kallos, Y-H Kuo, and C.T.J. Dodson, 2012: Wave Height Characteristics in the North Atlantic Ocean - A new approach based on Statistical and Geometrical techniques. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 26, 83-103 (paper download).

(147)  Chang, Y.-C., Chen, G.-Y., Tseng, R.-S., and P. C. Chu, 2012, Effect of Cylindrically-Shaped Atoll on Westward Propagating Anticyclonic Eddy – a Case Study, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 9, 43-46.

(146) Chu, P.C., 2011: Global upper ocean heat content and climate variability. Ocean Dynamics, 61 (8), 1189-1204.

(145) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2011: Probability density function of underwater bomb trajectory deviation due to stochastic ocean surface slopeJournal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control,  133,  031002 (13 pages).

(144)  Chu, P.C., J.M. Bushnell, C.W. Fan, and K.P. Watson, 2011: Modeling of underwater bomb trajectory for mine clearance. Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, 8 (1), 25-36.   

(143) Chu, P.C., and K. Kyriakidis, 2011: Chemical spill characteristics in the San Diego Bay. Marine Technology Society Journal, 45 (2), 52-58.

(142) Galanis, G, D. Hayes, G. Zodiatis, P.C. Chu, Y-H Kuo, and G. Kallos, 2011: Wave height characteristics in the Mediterranean Sea by means of numerical modeling, satellite data, statistical and geometrical techniques. Marine Geophysical Research, DOI 10.1007/s11001-011-9142-0.

(141) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2011: Maximum angle method for determining mixed layer depth from seaglider data. Journal of Oceanography, 67, 219-230.

(140)  Park, S., P.C. Chu, J.-H. Lee, 2011: Interannual-to-interdecadal variability of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in  1967–2008: Characteristics and seasonal forcings. Journal of Marine Systems, 87 (1),  90-101.

(139) Galanis, G., P.C. Chu, G. Kallos, 2011: Statistical post processes for the improvement of the results of numerical wave prediction models. A combination of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko and Kalman filters. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 4 (1), 23-31.

(138) Fiorino, S.T., R. M. Randall, R. J. Bartell, A.D. Downs, P.C. Chu, and C. W. Fan, 2011: Climate change: anticipated effects on high energy laser weapon systems in maritime environments. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50, 153-166.

(137) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2010: Optimal linear fitting for objective determination of ocean mixed layer depth from glider profiles. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 27, 1893-1898.

 (136) Chu, P.C.,  and C.-P. Hsieh, 2010: Effect of internal solitary waves on underwater acoustic propagation. Marine Technology Society Journal, 44 (5), 10-16.

(135) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2010:  A conserved minimal adjustment scheme for stabilization of hydrographic profiles. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology,  27 (6), 1072-1083.

(134) Chu, P.C., 2010: Observational studies on association between eastward equatorial jet and Indian Ocean dipole. Journal of Oceanography,  66, 429-434.

(133) Chu, P.C., and Y.-H. Kuo, 2010: Nutrient pumping/advection by propagating Rossby waves in the Kuroshio Extension. Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 1809-1819, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.04.007.

(132) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2010: Space-time transformation in flux-form semi-Lagrangian schemes. Terrestrial, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences, 21, 17-26.

(131) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, and P. R. Gefken, 2010: Diagnostic-photographic determination of drag/lift/torque coefficients of high speed rigid body in water column. Journal of Applied Mechanics,  77, 011015-1.

(130) Chu, P. C., 2009: Mine impact burial prediction from one to three dimensions. Applied Mechanics Reviews,  62, 010802.

 

(129) Chu, P. C., 2009: Statistical characteristics of the global surface current speeds obtained from satellite altimeter and scatterometer data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 2 (1), 27-32.

(128) Chu, P.C., and R.-F. Li, 2009: Chinese oceanographic research –trends in topical and geographic focus. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, 1442-1450.

(127) Galanis, G., G. Emmanouil, P.C. Chu, and G. Kallos, 2009: A new methodology for the extension of the impact of data assimilation on ocean wave prediction. Ocean Dynamics, 59, 523-535.

(126) Park, S., and P. C. Chu, 2008: Thermal fronts and cross-frontal heat flux in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Acta Oceanologica Sinica,  27 (5), 1-20.

(125) Chu, P.C., 2008: First passage time analysis for climate indices. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology,  25, 258-270.

(124) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen,  S.H. Lu, Z. Li, and Y. Lu,  2008: Particulate air pollution in Lanzhou China. Environment International, 34 (5), 698-713.

(123) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen, and S.H. Lu, 2008: Afforestation for reduction of NOx concentration in Lanzhou ChinaEnvironment International, 34 (5), 688-697.

(122) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen,  and S.H. Lu,  2008: Atmospheric effects on winter SO2 pollution in Lanzhou China. Atmospheric Research, 89, 365-373.

(121) Chu, P.C., and K.F. Cheng, 2008: South China Sea wave characteristics during Typhoon Muifa passage in winter 2004. Journal of Oceanography, 64, 1-21.

(120) Chu, P.C., 2008: Probability distribution function of the upper equatorial Pacific current speeds. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL033669.

(119) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, O.V. Melnichenko, and R.-F. Li, 2008: Argo floats revealing bimodality of large-scale mid-depth circulation in the North Atlantic. Acta Oceanlogica Sinica,  27 (2), 1-10.

(118) Park, S., and P. C. Chu, 2008: Characteristics of  thermal finestructure in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from airborne expendable bathythermograph measurements. Journal of Oceanography, 64, 859-875.

(117) Chu, P.C., and K.F. Cheng, 2007: Effect of wave boundary layer on the sea-to-air dimethylsulfide transfer velocity during typhoon passage. Journal of Marine Systems, 66, 122-129.

(116) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2007: An inverse model for calculation of global volume transport from wind and hydrographic data. Journal of Marine Systems, 65, 376-399.

(115) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, O.V. Melnichenko, and N.C. Wells, 2007:  Long baroclinic Rossby waves in the tropical North Atlantic observed from profiling floats. Journal of Geophysical Research,  112, C05032, doi:10.1029/2006JC003698.

(114) Chu, P.C. and C. P. Hsieh, 2007: Multifractal thermal characteristics of western Philippine Sea upper layer. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 36, 141-151.

(113) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, and T.M. Margolina, 2007: On nonlinear sensitivity of marine biological models to parameter variation. Ecological Modelling, 206 (3-4), 369-382,  doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.04.006.

(112) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2007: Mine impact burial model (IMPACT35) verification and improvement using sediment bearing factor method. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 32 (1), 34-48.

(111) Chu, P.C., G.R. Amezaga, E.L. Gottshall, and D. S. Cwalina, 2007: Ocean nowcast/forecast systems for improvement of Naval undersea capabilities. Marine Technology Society Journal, 41 (2), 23-30.

(110) Chu, P.C. and C. P. Hsieh, 2007: Change of Multifractal Thermal Characteristics in the Western Philippine Sea Upper Layer during Internal Wave-Soliton Propagation. Journal of Oceanography, 63, 927-939.

(109) Chu, P.C., S. Mancini, E. L. Gottshall, D. S. Cwalina , C. N. Barron, 2007: Sensitivity of satellite altimetry data assimilation on weapon acoustic preset using MODAS. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 32, 453-468.

(108) Hou, S., J. Chappellaz, J. Jouzel, P. Chu, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Qin, D. Raynaud, P. Mayewski, V. Lipenkov, and S. Kang, 2007: Summer temperature trend over the past two millennia using air content in himalayan ice. Climate of the Past3, 89-95.

(107) Ivanov, L. M., and P.C. Chu, 2007: On stochastic stability of regional ocean models to finite-amplitude perturbations of initial conditions. Dynamics of Atmosphere and Oceans, 43, (3-4), 199-225.

(106) Ivanov, L. M., and P.C. Chu, 2007: On stochastic stability of regional ocean models with uncertainty in wind forcingNonlinear Processes in Geophysics,  14, 655-670. 

(105) Park, S., and P.C. Chu, 2007: Synoptic distributions of thermal surface mixed layer and thermocline in the southern Yellow and East China Seas. Journal of Oceanography,  63, 1021-1028.

(104) Chu, P.C., 2006: First-passage time for stability analysis of the Kaldor model. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 27, 1355-1368.

(103) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2006: Prediction of falling cylinder through air-water-sediment columns. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 73, 300-314.

(102) Park, S., and P.C. Chu, 2006: Interannual SST variability in the Japan/East Sea and relationship with environmental variables. Journal of Oceanography, 62, 115-132.

(101) Park S, and P.C. Chu, 2006: Thermal and haline fronts in the Yellow/East China Sea: surface and subsurface seasonality comparison. Journal of Oceanography,  62, 617-638.

(100) Sun, J.l., P.C. Chu, and Q. Liu, 2006: The role of the halted baroclinic mode at the central equatorial Pacific in El Nino event. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 23, 45-53.

(99) Chu, P.C., M. Cornelius, and M. Wagstaff, 2005: Suspended sediment effect on buried mine detection using CASS/GRAG model. U.S. Navy Journal of Underwater Acoustics, 55, 307-318. 

(98) Chu, P.C., and L.M. Ivanov, 2005: Statistical characteristics of irreversible predictability time in regional ocean models. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 12, 1-10.

(97) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, and O.M. Melnichenko, 2005: Fall-winter current reversals on the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf. Journal of Physical Oceanography,  35, 902-910.

(96) Chu, P.C., C.-L. Fang, and C.S. Kim, 2005: Japan/East Sea model predictability. Continental Shelf Research, 25, 2107-2121.

(95) Chu, P.C., A. Gilles, and C.W. Fan, 2005: Experiment of falling cylinder through the water column. Experimental and Thermal Fluid Sciences, 29, 555-568.

(94) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2005: Pseudo-cylinder parameterization for mine impact burial prediction. Journal of Fluids Engineering,  127, 1515-1520.

(93) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, and T.M. Margolina, 2005: Seasonal variability of the Black Sea Chlorophyll-a concentration. Journal of Marine Systems, 56, 243-261.

(92) Chu, P.C., S.H. Lu, and Y.C. Chen, 2005: A numerical modeling study on desert oasis self-supporting mechanisms. Journal of Hydrology, 312, 256-276.

(91) Chu, P.C., M. Cornelious, and M. Wagstaff, 2005: Effects of suspended sediment on acoustic detection using reverberation. Marine Technology Society Journal, 39 (2), 105-109.

(90) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen, and A. Kuninaka, 2005: Seasonal variability of the East China/Yellow Sea surface buoyancy flux and thermohaline structure. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 22, 1-20.

(89) Li, R.-F., X.-B. You, and P.C. Chu, 2005: The eastward subtropical countercurrent on isopycnal surface in the western North Pacific. Science in China Ser D. Earth Sciences, 48, 1065-1073.

(88) Kim, C.S., H.S. Lim, J.J. Yoon, and P.C. Chu, 2004: Numerical simulation of Hydrodynamics and water properties in the Yellow Sea. I. Climatological inter-annual variability. Journal of Korean Society of Oceanography, 39 (1), 72-95.

(87)  Chu, P.C., M. D. Perry, E.L. Gottshall, and D.S. Cwalina, 2004: Satellite data assimilation for improvement of Naval undersea capability. Marine Technology Society Journal, 38 (1), 11-23.

(86) Chu, P.C., 2004: Multifractal thermal characteristics of the southwestern GIN Sea upper layer, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 19, 275-284.

(85) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, A. D. Evans, and A. Gilles, 2004: Triple coordinate transforms for prediction of falling cylinder through the water column. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 71, 292-298.

(84) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L.H. Kantha, T.M. Margolina, and O.M. Melnichenko, and Y.A, Poberenzhny, 2004: Lagrangian predictabilty of high-resolution regional ocean models. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 11, 47-66.

(83) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, and T.M. Margolina, 2004: Rotation method for reconstructing process and field from imperfect data. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 14, 2991-2997.

(82) Chu, P. C., and C.W. Fan, 2004: A terrain following crystal grid finite volume ocean circulation model. Journal of Oceanography, 60, 945-952.

(81) Chu, P.C., G.H. Wang, and C.W. Fan, 2004: Evaluation of the U.S. Navy’s Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) using the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) data. Journal of Oceanography, 60, 1007-1021.

(80) Chu, P.C., Y. Qi, Y.C. Chen, P. Shi, and Q.W. Mao, 2004: South China Sea wave charcteristics. Part-1: Validation of wavewatch-III using TOPEX/Poseidon data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 21 (11), 1718-1733.

(79)  Chu, P.C., M.D. Perry, E.L. Gottashall, and D.S. Cwalina, 2004: Satellite data assimilation for weapon acoustic preset program. U.S. Navy Journal of Underwater Acoustics, 54, 747-774. 

(78) Chu, P.C., and N. A. Vares, 2004: Uncertainty in shallow sea acoustic detection due to environmental variability. U.S. Navy Journal of Underwater Acoustics, 54, 347-367.

(77) Liu, C.X., Y.Q. Qi, J. Wang, and P.C. Chu, 2004:  Impact on the tropical cyclone Vongfong forecast using the QuikSCAT wind data. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 23, 387-397.

(76) Sun, J.L., P.C. Chu, and Q. Liu, 2004: The seasonal variation of undercurrent and temperature in the equatorial Pacific jointly derived from buoy measurement and assimilation analysis. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 23, 51-60.

(75) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, T.P. Korzhova, T.M. Margolina, and O.M. Melnichenko, 2003: Analysis of sparse and noisy ocean current data using flow decomposition. Part 2: Application to Eulerian and Lagrangian data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 20, 492-512.

(74) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, T.P. Korzhova, T.M. Margolina, and O.M. Melnichenko, 2003: Analysis of sparse and noisy ocean current data using flow decomposition. Part 1: Theory. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology,  20 (4), 478-491.

(73) Chu, P.C., and G.H. Wang, 2003: Seasonal variability of thermohaline front in the central South China Sea. Journal of Oceanography,  59, 65-78.

(72) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2003: Hydrostatic correction for reducing horizontal pressure gradient errors in sigma coordinate models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, C6, 3206, doi: 10.1029/2002JC001668, 2003.

(71) Chu, P.C., and J. Lan, 2003: Extremely strong thermohaline sources/sinks generated by diagnostic initialization. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (6), doi: 10.1029/2002GL016525.

(70) Chu, P.C., R.F. Li, and C.W. Fan, 2003: Determination of the current system on isopycnal surface between Mindanao and New Guinea from GDEM. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology,  21, 193-213.

(69) Wang, G.H., J.-L. Su, and P.C. Chu, 2003: Mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea observed with altimeter data. Geophysical Research Letters,  30 (21), doi: 10.1029/2003GL018532.

(68) Qi, Y.-Q., P.C. Chu, P. Shi, Q.-W. Mao, and C.-W. Fan, 2003: Analysis of significant wave heights from WWATCH and TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry. Acta Oceanologica Sinica (Chinese Edition),  22 (4),  1-9.

(67) Chu, P.C., 2002: C-vector for identification of oceanic secondary circulation across Arctic fronts in Fram Strait. Geophysical Research Letters,  29, 10.1029/2002GLO15978.

(66) Chu, P.C., L.M. Ivanov, C.W. Fan, 2002: Backward Fokker-Planck equation for determining model valid prediction period. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, C6, 10.1029/2001JC000879.

(65) Chu, P.C., L.M., Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V. Melnichenko, 2002: Probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 59, 2860-2873.

(64) Chu, P.C., L. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O. Melnichenko, and Y. Poberezhny, 2002: Power law decay in model predictability skill. Geophysical Research Letters,  29 (15), 10.1029/2002GLO14891.

(63) Chu, P.C., R.F. Li, and X.B. You, 2002: Northwest Pacific subtropical contercurrent on isopycnal surface in Summer. Geophysical Research Letters,  29, 10.1029/2002GLO14831.

(62) Chu, P.C., Q.Y. Liu, Y.L. Jia, C.W. Fan, 2002: Evidence of barrier layer in the Sulu and Celebes Seas. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 3299-3309.

(61) Noh, C.J. Jang, Y., T. Yamagata, P.C. Chu, and C. H. Kim, 2002: Simulation of more realistic upper ocean process from an OGCM with a new ocean mixed layer model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 1284-1307.

(60) Chu, P.C., B.B. Ma, and Y.C. Chen, 2002: South China Sea thermohaline structure and circulation. Acta Oceanologia Sinica,  21, 227-261.

(59) Chu, P.C., G.H. Wang, and Y.C. Chen, 2002: Japan/East Sea (JES) circulation and thermohaline structure, Part 3, Autocorrelation Functions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 3596-3615.

(58) Chu, P.C., J. Lan, and C.W. Fan, 2001: Japan/East Sea (JES) circulation and thermohaline structure, Part 2, A variational P-vector method. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 2886-2902.

(57) Chu, P.C., J. Lan, and C.W. Fan, 2001: Japan/East Sea (JES) circulation and thermohaline structure, Part 1, Climatology. Journal of Physical Oceanography,  31, 244-271.

(56) Chu, P.C., X.-S. Chen, and C.W. Fan, 2001: Comparison between wavenumber truncation and horizontal diffusion methods in spectral models. Monthly Weather Review, 129, 152-158.

(55) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2001: An accuracy progressive sixth-order finite difference scheme. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 18, 1245-1257.

(54) Chu, P.C., S.H. Lu, and Y.C. Chen, 2001: Evaluation of the Princeton Ocean Model using the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 18, 1521-1539.

(53) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2001:  Low salinity cool-core cyclonic eddy detected northwest of Luzon during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) in July 1998. Journal of Oceanography,  57, 549-563.

(52) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen, and S.H. Lu, 2001: Evaluation of Haney-type surface thermal boundary condition using a coupled atmosphere and ocean model. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 18, 355-375.

(51) Liu, Q.,Y. Jia, P. Liu, Q. Wang, and P.C. Chu, 2001: Seasonal and intra-seasonal thermocline variability in the central South China Sea. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 4467-4470.

(50) Qian, Y.F., Q.-Q. Wang, P.C. Chu, 2000: Numerical Modeling of the Wind Forced Cold and Warm Gyres in the South China Sea. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences – Chinese Edition, 24 (5), 625-633.

(49)  Chu, P.C., 2000: P-vector spirals and determination of absolute velocities. Journal of Oceanography, 56, 591-599.

(48) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, and W.T. Liu, 2000: Determination of vertical thermal structure from sea surface temperature. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 17, 971-979.

(47) Chu, P.C., and R.F. Li, 2000: South China Sea isopycnal surface circulations. Journal of Physical Oceanography,  30, 2419-2438.

(46) Chu, P.C., J. M. Veneziano, C.W. Fan, M.J. Carron, and W.T. Liu, 2000: Response of the South China Sea to tropical cyclone Ernie 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research,  105, 13991-14009.

(45) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 2000: A three-point sixth-order staggered combined compact difference scheme. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 32, 323-340.

(44) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 1999: A three-point non-uniform combined compact difference scheme. Journal of Computational Physics, 148, 663-674.

(43) Chu, P.C., 1999: Two kinds of predictability in Lorenz system. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences,  56, 1427-1432.

(42) Chu, P.C., Q.Q. Wang, and R.H. Bourke, 1999: A geometric model for Beaufort/Chukchi Sea thermohaline structure. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16, 613-632.

(41) Chu, P.C., C.R. Fralick, S.D. Haeger, and M.J. Carron, 1999:  Reply to “Comment on ‘A parametric model for Yellow Sea thermal variability’ by P.C. Chu et al.” Journal of Geophysical Research,  104, 18463-18466.

(40) Chu, P.C., S.H. Lu, and W.T. Liu, 1999: Uncertainty of the South China Sea prediction using NSCAT and NCEP winds during tropical storm Ernie 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research,  104, 11273-11289.

(39) Chu, P.C., S.H. Lu, and Y.C. Chen, 1999: A coastal atmosphere-ocean coupled system (CAOCS) evaluated using an airborne expandable bathythermograph (AXBT) data set. Journal of Oceanography, 55, 543-558.

(38) Chu, P.C., N.L. Edmons, and C.W. Fan, 1999: Dynamical mechanisms for the South China Sea seasonal circulation and thermohaline variabilities. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 2971-2989.

(37) Chu, P.C., and N.L. Edmons, 1999: A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the South China Sea circulation and thermohaline structure. Chinese Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 22, 481-503.

(36) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen, and S.H. Lu, 1998: On Haney-type surface thermal boundary conditions for ocean circulation models. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28, 890-901.

(35) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, and W.J. Cai, 1998: P vector method evaluated using modular ocean model (MOM). Journal of Oceanography, 54, 185-198.

(34) Chu, P.C., Y.C. Chen, and S.H. Lu, 1998: Temporal and spatial variabilities of Japan Sea surface temperature and atmospheric forcing. Journal of Oceanography,  54, 273-384.

(33) Chu, P.C., S.H. Lu, and Y.C. Chen, 1998: Wind-driven South China Sea deep basin warm-core/cool-core eddies. Journal of Oceanography,  54, 347-360.).

(32) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 1998: A three-point combined compact difference scheme. Journal of Computational Physics, 140, 370-399.

(31) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, C.J. Lozano, and J. Kerling, 1998: An airborne expandable bathythermograph survey of the South China Sea, May 1995. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 21637-21652.

(30) Cai, W.J., and P.C. Chu, 1998: A thermal oscillation under a restorative forcing. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 124, 793-809.

(29) Cai, W.J., and P.C. Chu, 1998: Oceanic responses to gradual transitions of equator-to-pole temperature gradients. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 124, 2817-2828.

(28) Steger, J., C.A. Collins, and P.C. Chu, 1998: Circulation in the Archipelago de Colon (Galapagos Islands), November 1993. Deep Sea Research, II, 45, 1093-1114.

(27) Chu, P.C., S.K. Wells, S.D. Haeger, C. Szczechowski, and M. Carron: 1997: Temporal and spatial scales of the Yellow Sea thermal variability. Journal of Geophysical Research,  102, 5655-5668.

(26) Chu, P.C., C.R. Fralick, S.D. Haeger, and M.J. Carron, 1997: A parametric model for Yellow Sea thermal variability. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 10499-10508.

(25) Chu, P.C., C.W. Fan, and L.L. Ehret, 1997: Determination of open boundary conditions with an optimization method. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 14, 723-734.

(24) Chu, P.C., and C.P. Chang, 1997: South China Sea warm pool in boreal spring. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 14, 195-206.

(23) Chu, P.C., H.C. Tseng, C.P. Chang, and J.M. Chen, 1997: South China Sea warm pool detected from the Navy's Master Oceanographic Observational Data Set (MOODS). Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 15761-15771.

(22) Chu, P.C., and C.W. Fan, 1997: Sixth-order difference scheme for sigma coordinate ocean models. Journal of Physical Oceanography,  27, 2064-2071.

(21) Chu, P.C., S.H. Lu, and Y. Chen, 1997: Temporal and spatial variabilities of the South China Sea surface temperature anomaly. Journal of Geophysical Research,  102, 20937-20955.

(20) Cai, W.J., and P.C. Chu, 1997: Effects of convective instability due to incompatibility between ocean dynamics and surface forcing. Annales Geophysicae, 15, 1,067-1,075.

(19) Chu, P.C., 1996: The S-transform for obtaining localized spectra. Marine Technological Society Journal, 29 (4), 28-38.

(18) Cai, W.J., and P.C. Chu, 1996: Ocean climate drift and interdecadal oscillation due to a change in thermal damping.  Journal of Climate, 11, 2821-2833.

(17) Chu, P.C., 1995: P-vector method for determining absolute velocity from hydrographic data. Marine Technology Society Journal, 29 (2), 3-14.

(16) Chu, P.C., 1994: P-vector inverse method. Ocean Modelling, 114, 23-26.

(15) Chu, P.C., 1993: Generation of low frequency unstable modes in a coupled equatorial troposphere and ocean mixed layer. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 50, 731-749.

(14) Chu, P.C., and R.W. Garwood, Jr., 1991: On the two-phase thermodynamics of the coupled cloud-ocean mixed layer. Journal of Geophysical Research,  96, 3425-3436.

(13) Chu, P.C.,1990: Air-ice-ocean feedback mechanism and ice oscillation on millennia time scales. Annals of Glaciology, 14, 28-31.

(12) Chu, P.C., and R.W. Garwood, Jr., 1990: Thermodynamic feedback between cloud and ocean mixed layer. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 7, 1-10.

(11) Chu, P.C., R.W. Garwood, Jr., and P. Muller, 1990: Unstable and damped modes in coupled ocean mixed layer and cloud models. Journal of Marine Systems, 1, 1-11.

(10) Chu, P.C., 1989: Relationship between thermally forced surface wind and sea surface temperature gradient. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 130, 31-45.

(9) Bannon, P.R., and P.C. Chu, 1988: Anelastic semi-geostrophic flow over a mountain ridge. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences,  45, 1025-1029.

(8) Chu, P.C., 1988: An instability theory of air-sea interaction for coastal upwelling. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 5, 277-285.

(7)  Chu, P.C., 1988. A seabreeze mechanism for ice edge upwelling. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 12, 163-181.

(6)  Chu, P.C., and R. W. Garwood, Jr., 1988: Comment on “A coupled dynamic-thermodynamic model of an ice-ocean system in the marginal ice zone” by Sirpa Hakkinen. Journal of Geophysical Research93, 5155-5156.

(5) Chu, P.C., 1987. An air-sea feedback mechanism for quasi-geostrophic water movement near a fast shelf ice edge with a small curvature. Chinese Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 11, 31-42.

(4) Chu, P.C., 1987: Generation of unstable modes of the iceward attenuating swell by icebreeze. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17, 828-832.

(3) Chu, P.C., 1987: An instability theory of ice-air interaction for the formation of ice-edge bands. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 6966-6970.

(2) Chu, P.C., 1987: An icebreeze mechanism for an ice divergence-convergence criterion in the marginal ice zone. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17, 1627-1632.

(1) Chu, P.C.,1986: An instability theory of ice-air interaction for the migration of the marginal ice zone. Geophysical Journal of Royal Astronomical Society, 86, 863-883.